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If possible use SELinux and other Linux security extensions to enforce limitations on network and other programs. For example, SELinux provides a variety of security policies for Linux kernel. Running a MAC kernel protects the system from malicious or flawed applications that can damage or destroy the system. See the official Redhat documentation which explains SELinux configuration. Make sure you have a good and strong password policy. Most important pick a password you can remember. The chage command changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change.
You can prevent all users from using or reuse same old passwords under Linux. Under Linux you can use the faillog command to display faillog records or to set login failure limits. It also can be used for maintains failure counters and limits.
To see failed login attempts, enter: faillog To unlock an account after login failures, run: faillog -r -u userName Note you can use passwd command to lock and unlock accounts: lock Linux account passwd -l userName unlock Linux account passwd -u userName. Only root account have UID 0 with full permissions to access the system. If you see other lines, delete them or make sure other accounts are authorized by you to use UID 0.
Never ever login as root user. You should use sudo to execute root level commands as and when required. You must protect Linux servers physical console access. Set BIOS and grub boot loader password to protect these settings. All production boxes must be locked in IDCs Internet Data Centers and all persons must pass some sort of security checks before accessing your server.
See also:. Disable all unnecessary services and daemons services that runs in the background. You need to remove all unwanted services from the system start-up. Type the following command to list all services which are started at boot time in run level 3: chkconfig --list grep '3:on' To disable service, enter: service serviceName stop chkconfig serviceName off. X Window systems on server is not required. You can disable and remove X Windows to improve server security and performance. Iptables is a user space application program that allows you to configure the firewall Netfilter provided by the Linux kernel.
Use firewall to filter out traffic and allow only necessary traffic.
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You can prevent many denial of service attacks with the help of Iptables:. Separation of the operating system files from user files may result into a better and secure system. Make sure the following filesystems are mounted on separate partitions:. Create separate partitions for Apache and FTP server roots.
Make sure disk quota is enabled for all users.
To implement disk quotas, use the following steps:. All local or remote user can use such file. It is a good idea to find all such files.
See reported file man page for further details. Anyone can modify world-writable file resulting into a security issue. Files not owned by any user or group can pose a security problem. Without a centralized authentication system, user auth data becomes inconsistent, which may lead into out-of-date credentials and forgotten accounts which should have been deleted in first place. You can keep auth data synchronized between servers. Do not use the NIS service for centralized authentication.
Kerberos performs authentication as a trusted third party authentication service by using cryptographic shared secret under the assumption that packets traveling along the insecure network can be read, modified, and inserted. Kerberos builds on symmetric-key cryptography and requires a key distribution center. You can make remote login, remote copy, secure inter-system file copying and other high-risk tasks safer and more controllable using Kerberos.
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So, when users authenticate to network services using Kerberos, unauthorized users attempting to gather passwords by monitoring network traffic are effectively thwarted. See how to setup and use Kerberos. You need to configure logging and auditing to collect all hacking and cracking attempts. This is also useful to find out software misconfiguration which may open your system to various attacks. See the following logging related articles:. Read your logs using logwatch command logcheck.
These tools make your log reading life easier. You get detailed reporting on unusual items in syslog via email. A sample syslog report:.
See Common Linux log files names and usage for more info. The auditd is provided for system auditing. It is responsible for writing audit records to the disk. With auditd you can answers the following questions:. See our quick tutorial which explains enabling and using the auditd service. The SSH protocol is recommended for remote login and remote file transfer. However, ssh is open to many attacks. See how to secure OpenSSH server:. A network intrusion detection system NIDS is an intrusion detection system that tries to detect malicious activity such as denial of service attacks, port scans or even attempts to crack into computers by monitoring network traffic.
40 Linux Server Hardening Security Tips [12222 edition]
It is a good practice to deploy any integrity checking software before system goes online in a production environment. If possible install AIDE software before the system is connected to any network. I recommended that you install and use rkhunter root kit detection software too. Fail2ban or denyhost scans the log files for too many failed login attempts and blocks the IP address which is showing malicious signs.
See how to install and use denyhost for Linux. It is recommended that you edit php. Linux offers excellent protections against unauthorized data access. File permissions and MAC prevent unauthorized access from accessing data. You can easily protect files, and partitons under Linux using the following tools:. It cannot be stressed enough how important it is to make a backup of your Linux system. A proper offsite backup allows you to recover from cracked server i. The traditional UNIX backup programs are dump and restore are also recommended.
This page explained Linux server hardening security tips. Please see the following pages for more info:. Share on Facebook Twitter. Google is your friend. I found the above link in less than 30 seconds. We Linux geeks like to be helpful. Robert, Can you confirm which one of the 2 is best for users authentication? Let me know..
Hi, can you explain a bit, how the mileage would get affected, i mean symptoms where from i can identify lagging issues. Also if i would configure samba 4 as a domain controller with active directory admin pack installed for a single domain. Though i am an active user in your forum, i never posted a comment on your blog.. Most of the things new to me..